Grow Larger Vegetables with Rock Dust – Benefits and How to Apply


>>JOHN: This is John Kohler with growingyourgreens.com,
here in my front yard garden I have a good friend here
with me today and is what I consider an expert on rock dust and growing in minerals.
>>DON: Would you stop that? [laughs]
>>JOHN: Don’t breathe the rock dust, you want to always wear a mask because it is fine
particles and it could clog up your lungs.>>DON: Right… Sure. Very fine rock dust.
>>JOHN: Don’t breathe it in that’s one thing but guys we’re going to talk on todays show
more about rock dust, with Don we’re going to learn why we should
use rock dust and what the benefits are of using rock dust and
more importantly how to apply the rock dust, take it away Don. What are the benefits of
using rock dust? I mean I have vibrant plants but you’ve done
a lot of trials and testing and 30 years you’ve been doing this.
>>DON: Vibrant people that’s another benefit. [laughs]
>>JOHN: So what’s the benefits of using the rock dust in the soil for the plants, and
for us for that matter?>>DON: Well the benefits are they have all
the nutrients they need to grow and thrive and fulfill their genetic
potential, it’s true with every organism that’s depending on the soil fertility and the plants
that grow there which is all life that lives on the land,
even the sea life depends on the minerals and the chain of life there
starting with minerals and microorganisms in the oceans so it’s basically the same kind
of environment making sure all the microbes have all that they need
their job on the Earth if you want to call it that.
Their genetic potential, their destiny whatever you want to call it. To do their job and then
the plants will thrive the benefits to the plant so they
can be healthier, they can produce more, they can produce more seeds,
that produce more plants, that’s what they’re trying to do generally is to fruit and produce
seeds and propagate themselves, spread and replenish
the Earth. We can help them obviously by making sure
the soil is rich and fertile and has all the minerals, enough organic
matter to feed the microbes, the organic matter they need theres not many microbes that live
exclusively on minerals. Most of them use minerals and organic rock
minerals plus the organic compounds and soil that we provide through compost
and molching and the natural decay of plants and plant matter also animal matter as well.
The benefits, the health benefits – every kind of health benefit imaginable, mental,
physical, spiritual, health. It’s largely dependent on food, nutrition
and starting with the foundation what is foundation everyone?
I think we all know by now.>>JOHN: Soil!
>>DON: I’ll go along with that. [laughs]
So we think of a better system and move everything out the soil and the hydroponic systems.
[laughs] Basically that are growing from soil, yes
that works. Give it its full chance to show us, show us what it can do.
>>JOHN: We are the soil.>>DON: We can show it what we can do.
>>JOHN: The biggest question a lot of my viewers have, like I get so often, how much
rock dust do I use and can I burrow my plants by putting rock dust on?
>>DON: We’ve been through all this. [laughs]
>>JOHN: I know, but my viewers haven’t. [laughs]
>>DON: I like to say that to each other. What was the question?
>>JOHN: You’re watching stuff.>>DON: How much, Steph and Reve out there,
we have to give credit to Steph and Reve from Mowie who first said
we’ve been through all this. He’s very patient though.
So anyway, how much I recommend, usually about a pound per square foot of soil, pound of
rock powder as an initial generous free mineralization. If it’s very fine you can add less it’s quite
a bit on the acreage, on the acre scale it’s like 20 times per acre
and most farmers might see that as too much or too expensive for some so they might want
to do less, if it’s finally ground material like these,
a quarter pound per square foot on a large scale which is 5 tonnes per acre,
would probably give very good first results. Complimenting other organic practices and
just general good soil and Earth care. I encourage a pound per square foot if it’s
possible as an initial re-mineralization for soils that have never had rock dust.
Yours that have been generously re-mineralised and you’re cropping every year you want to
probably give that, at least enough to replenish what you’re borrowing
back from the soil. Of course you’re composting whilst trying
to recycle things back to the soil, once you get the soil up to
a high level then the maintenance amount would probably be at least a generous sprinkling
before you plant another crop. But again quarter of a pound per square foot
as a maintenance dust might be a good guideline. Everyone can tap into their own gardeners
intuition, observe their soils and their garden and their farm and
try to discern what makes sense in their particular unique situation.
>>JOHN: So another question I get is, John I’m using like granite dust or marble dust
and I’m doing good, that’s rock dust right? Hey Don, is marble
dust or granite dust the same as gravel dust or rock dust?
What is better, are they all good?>>DON: Actually gravel dust has been confused
with granite dust for many years, because granite dust,
some granite dusts have been commercially on the markets since the 1950s I think, starting
with HYPROTIGHT out of Georgia in the 50s. It seemed to work pretty well, high in some
minerals like potassium but not generally granites being a single
type of rock, don’t have the full spectrum of minerals you would find in a mixed gravel
where you may have 10 or 20 different types of rocks, often you’ll
see in gravels like river gravels circulation gravels too.
Theres all kinds of different colors and types of rocks there and if you grind them all together
and mix them, it’s sort of the difference between just trying
to live on apples alone for granite dust and having
a big bowl of 20 kinds of fruit and living on that, 10 fruits 10 vegetables, whatever
else you might eat. Marble dust when you finish your granite dust,
you might want to use that or use it as part of a mixture of other
types of rocks if you only have access to granite dust like some parts of the world
are pretty granitic and you may only have access to that.
But most areas you can get a mixture of different types like gravel dust and broad mixtures
of rocks that should ensure the full spectrum of biologically essential
minerals which we’re looking to put in the soil and have
in the foods and have going into our bodies and brains, so they will function most optimally.
With marble dust, I’ve heard of people using that in Nepah and they’re getting counter
productive results. It seemed that peed plaque grows somehow or
growth stunted. I’m not sure why that happened with the marble dust but
marble is a pretty specialist kind of rock, maybe it was way too high in silicon and it
could have had severe imbalances of magnesium and some things
like there’s soils in California that are really high in magnesium
and they grow these stunted pygmy forests they’re called, like they met in the Mendocino
county I think that’s if I recall correctly it’s due to the
severe mineral imbalances, really low phosphorous but they have
magnesium, something like that. Again, nature creates the most fertile soils,
you can look for examples in different part of the world,
by mixing together different types of rocks and somehow reducing those rocks to fine powder
whether through wave action, water action, glacial action,
tumbling of rocks, water castriument systems, oops.
[laughs] That’s our cue to turn it over to John so
anyway, broad spectrum re-mineralization usually is the good mixture
of different types of rocks so that’s what I suggest people look for to duplicate natures
method of producing the most fertile soils.>>JOHN: Alright so the other question Don,
is rock phosphate so that is a variable, is that the same as
rock dust and adding this kind of stuff?>>DON: Well rock phosphate is another kind
of rock dust like limestone, granite dust. It’s a single type of rock from more specialized
deposits of ancient marine creatures, commonly produces
phosphate rock over millions of years with compression of sea floor beds and mostly the
sea floor it’s my understanding. In some areas phosphate and the natural rocks
may be lower than you’d want ideally so maybe phosphate rock
added to the natural mix might be beneficial but generally in most peoples experience and
by now analyzed in rock mixtures, it usually seems
to be enough phosphorous imbalance with all the other minerals.
Phosphate rock has been used as kind of a foresting agent in chemical agriculture by
putting it in higher amounts and residulating it with acids like
sulfuric acid first to make it more highly available.
It’s more like a drug in a way, the forests grow along with the chemical nitrogen and
the chemical potassium. I don’t really recommend that way of agriculture,
if you’re interested in the natural methods and you’re
trying to produce a healthy balance providing all the minerals simultaneously so that’s
the balance for us driving for I think is to get the balance
of nutrients in the soil and the foods in ourselves.
Then we can go merrily on living in balance, healthy, productive, constructive life for
everybody.>>JOHN: Alright great Don so basically I
think to sum it up and correct me if I’m wrong.>>DON: Oh I will.
>>JOHN: Alright, cool. We want to just have enough balance, a balance
in health, a balance in nature and a balance in our gardens.
The way to get the balance of minerals in our garden is not by these specific rock powders
like granite dust, marble dust or phosphates or whatever.
We want to use rock dust minerals so that has the nice balance of minerals thereby supplying
the plants what it needs, what would naturally be in
nature – the best. Right?>>DON: Makes sense to me. The broad spectrum
of mixed rocks rather than single types of rocks,
again just like having too limited a diet you want a varied diet so you can make sure
you get all the nutrients from different sources to add a
natural balance, different plants take up different
concentrations of all the different elements and create different amounts of vitamins and
amino acids and enzymes. It’s a matter of diversity and variety and
full spectrum mineralization is really the foundation of that.
>>JOHN: Alright so full spectrum mineralization is really important.
This stuff is, well there’s around 20-30 dollars per bag depending on where you live.
Actually well 15-30 dollars a bag depending on where you live, the shipping involved.
To get these guys for me so I bought basically a truck load of this gravel dust for like
$20 and it was like a big whole bunch, there was as much
as my truck could hold because it’s heavy. It wasn’t mostly dust there was actually a
lot of little rocks and stones so what people find,
the finest stuff that they have at their local gravel yard has some dust but also lots of
stones. Could they use that at all, so put that into
their ground, is that better than not using anything?
>>DON: Yes, it won’t do any harm, traditionally farmers in some parts of the world have said,
oh stones in our field, let’s get them out of there!
Maybe because there’s too much for cultivating easily or something but generally stones become
soil eventually, if they’re not in the way of your cultivation
and your gardening find those stones.>>JOHN: Small gravel pieces.
>>DON: Yes, you usually find some soils need better drainage so they need more stone in
there to help to drain it, especially clay soils.
If your soil already drains really fast maybe you don’t want to put so much sand up to gravel
size stones in there but generally if you’re adding with dust,
the dust is going to help the soil become richer and able to hold moisture better,
and not drain so quickly like sand, real sandy and for little soils too.
You’re trying to build biological life in the soil, billions and billions of microbes,
bacteria, fungi and acting my seats so then there’ll be Earth
worms that feed on those little tiny creatures, you want Earth worms
doing most of your cultivation unless you really love digging which is fun but Earth
worms can do most of your digging for you if you get the soil enriched,
let them do their job and we can do our job which is being wise,
conscious, people that see what’s needed and give it, don’t be too stingy now you may not
last long thinking of the whole human race. But giving, being the generous species on
Earth I often say that in my talks, it’s time for us to become
the conscious and generous species if we want to stay here, that’s an option to not stay
here but I’d prefer staying [laughs]
and recreating paradise for everyone, we are the soil we are the world.
[laughs] It’s time for the song folks.
>>JOHN: We are the world, we are the ones to make a bright day so let’s start living.
Growing…>>DON: Living!
>>JOHN: Growing!>>DON: Living and growing!
[laughs] Need we say more?
>>JOHN: So I hope you’ve learned more about using rock dust and what’s important.
Be sure to check the other video I have on the specifics about the different kind of
rock dust and which one may be the most beneficial for
you. Once again this is John Kohler and…
>>DON: Don Weaver, thank you very much, to life.
>>JOHN: With growingyourgreens.com and remember if you’re not using rock dust, start today.
We’ll see you next time.

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Reader Comments

  1. Andrew B.

    Is there a concern with rock dust use in the garden if there are trace heavy metals in the material?

    Keep up with the great videos!!! Love them all. By the way sorry to see your wind damage to your garden in your recent episode. You’re a totally positive guy, would love to have you as my neighbor !!

  2. PJDolan1

    John, I found an excellent source for rock dust your viewers may be interested in.

    Alisorganics will ship Azomite rock dust powder in large USPS flat rate priority boxes. Each box holds 30 lbs of rock dust and shipping per box is only $14.95. I ordered 60 lbs (2 boxes) for only $58.80, including shipping. This is a huge savings over UPS shipping.

    This shipping option is not on Ali's website, so people will have to contact her through her website to request it.

  3. DannyCassette

    Well I'm sold on this. Just ordered a bag of Azomite rock dust for my pepper plants. They are already planted in large pots. How do I mix in the rock dust?

  4. Jerry Hodges

    Hi John-You might be giving granite a "bum rap". It actually has at least 11 compounds, made up of potassium, sodium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, siilcon, & more . These are in compounds with oxygen. To be available, the soil pH must be just right. pH breaks them apart. This is true with all rocks. Gravel only refers to size which doesn't tell us anything about what is in it (sometimes granite). Marble is calcium carbconate (limestone), but can have helpful impurities.

  5. MrSchmallz

    @algae1000 I think he's on target by discouraging the use of one particular rock. Granite is a felsic igneous, e.g. heavy on K-spar (KAlSi3O8). The remaining group of minerals aren't terribly diverse in composition. I think the point is to buy a dust that is composed of a wide variety of minerals, thereby maximizing the likelihood of supplying nutrients that are in demand yet deficient in native soil.

  6. Jerry Hodges

    @MrSchmallz Hello, yes I agree with you on using a diverse number of rocks. I wanted to point out that granite is not just a single source mineral rock, but has many minerals, and as you probably know, granites can vary with regard to composition from location to location, and some, depending on what you are growing, can supply most if not all of the necessary nutrients, particularly in California.

  7. Full Spectrum Rainbow

    you guys are goofy……i love how you are having a good time with this…..gardening always brings me joy……i subbed……thanks for all your great info and best wishes to you and yours.

  8. Simone Munro

    I have been using Munash Rockdust on my garden and it has taken off over spring and now over summer its looking really great despite not much rain. I love it! Keep spreading the rockdust love boys!

  9. Gooper Loper

    I'm very much into remineralization but I will never believe you need 1 pound per square foot. Where in nature would plants get so much rock dust or the equivalent in dissolved minerals? It sounds unnatural and a HUGE sales push. I want to hear some sound reasoning behind this.. then maybe I'll consider it. But the pulverization of rock is going to take SOOO much energy, and with a recommendation of another 1/4 pound every year after.. jesus! I've seen people say only 1 pound per 50sqft!

  10. Gooper Loper

    @drchen054 What I meant about pulverization taking so much energy is that a lot of remineralization proponents keep saying that it will result in huge growth gains and sequester a LOT more CO2. Well, if you are using diesel to crush the rocks all the time and/or ship it in from far away.. well…

  11. Gooper Loper

    @NWOareScum Then that makes more sense thanks. Also, I realize he said somewhere else that minerals have been depleted for a long long time which is why he recommends adding so much. eh.. maybe, we'll see.. I'm adding some to my veggies right now with my own rock mix that I pounded myself. They are a wide mixture of granite, river, and multi-color gravel rocks. Can't wait to see!

  12. fleebenworth

    no, perlite is heat-expanded volcanic rock. Rock dust contains trace elements which are essential to the growth of plants and animals and which may be lacking in your soil.

  13. alan30189

    You guys are driving me nuts. What is on your table. What is Azomite? Is it a brand of rock dust? What's in the bottle? I guess I have to go to another video.

  14. Learn Organic Gardening at GrowingYourGreens

    Lead and Arsenic are natural trace minerals. When man gets involved and concentrates them to un-naturally high levels, they are toxic. In small or trace amounts, I believe based on my research, they are fine and should not pose any risk.

  15. Learn Organic Gardening at GrowingYourGreens

    absolutely. Add it to worm bins and compost bins. Dont add too much to the worm bin, as it may dry out your worms.

  16. Learn Organic Gardening at GrowingYourGreens

    In order from left to right: Azomite, Gaia Green Glacial Rock Dust, Ocean Solution trace minerals (liquid), and an un-named sample that was sent to me as a rock dust.

  17. TheFrogfeeder

    Editing bro, editing….All your other videos are GREAT! And you always talk about this rock dust and how important it is… and then I finally got here and that creepy tall guy started talking… and talking… and talking. I think even you fell asleep around 7 or 8 minutes in 😉

  18. LuvTheSnapper

    man has made lead a bad thing, by adding it in stupidly high amounts, to this and that. azomite does not have anything in it that can hurt you, in it's form. flat out.

  19. alan30189

    I can't find rock dust anywhere. Even a farmers supply place, Tractor Supply. Does anyone know where I find it in Atlanta, GA for a reasonable price?

  20. butch fomby

    JOHN, I MAY HAVE MISSED IT, BUT HAVE YOU DONE A VIDEO ON BIOCHAR (TERRA PRATA)?….THE OKLHOMA WAY IS 1.ROCK DUST 2.BIOCHAR 3.MYCORRHIZA 4.HUGLEKULTUR OR BURIED WOOD 5.GOOD COMPOST 6.GOOD WATER 7. NO CHEMICALS OF ANY KIND, AND NO TILLING OR COMPACTING OF SOIL (DON'T WALK ON)….ROY

  21. MrChief132

    This guy is NOT helpful at all…he act as he's superior and doesn't want to even do the video. We wanted to know how to apply the rock dust. Lady at the garden nursery where I bought mine says don't use a lot and to apply on top and water down into the soil.

  22. 32788941

    how about the balance of not hitting the bag with rock dust on a consistent basis into the air next to the person standing nearby? oh yeah, don't forget to use a mask!

  23. Roberta Peck

    These videos are so awesome!!!You are providing such a service to others!! Love how you teach and enthuse in your videos!!!! I have never had success with growing things. Now I KNOW I am going to have success.

  24. Vincent Alexander

    I also just discovered this link if you search google "azomite uranium" you'll see it actually has slightly higher levels of radiation then just trace amounts. I'm a bit concerned about using it now. I know it's small amounts but as John said, when man gets involved and does things God doesn't do in nature, like moving dirt around… then you get different results. Perhaps homemade compost and a thick layer of woodchips is all your soil really needs. That's a really natural approach anyway.

  25. Derek Wong

    Since I have already planted my plants into the ground can I just put the azomite on the soil and water and be the same? or should I just wait till next year?

  26. Derek Wong

    I don't know if its the Azomite or just a cold haha, but like the day after using it in the garden I been having this really bad sore throat, slight cough, and some mucus. Could this be a serious thing due to the Azomite because I wore a mask, not a hi-end one but a filter one. Do you think its the Azomite or just a cold? Help.

  27. LordsMan

    Don Weaver is a crook trying to wipe out huge portions of the human population. Check out a piece of refuse called the survival of civilization and pay special attention to the section titled 'Taxes, Freedom, and the Constitution.' This guy has been actively working to destroy the United States constitution, along with the rest of the green movement crooks, for decades now. This man is treasonous scum and should be hung high.

  28. Branflakes Branflakes

    I doubt it's AZOMITE. It can be irritating to your respiratory system but I doubt it if you wore a mask. Best wishes and happ growing.

  29. lkblayney

    Interesting. I found ‘Survival of Civilization’ to be spot on in many respects. The truth must really hurt your tiny brain for you to be so full of hateful remarks. I agree a great deal with the sociological truths in the paper 'Taxes, Freedom, and the Constitution.’ Does that mean I need to be hung high? I dare you to try. Save your paranoid nonsense for conspiracy blogs. We aren’t buying what you’re selling here.

  30. lkblayney

    @ Boodyho
    In response to the email you sent me.~
    Oh, you are one of THOSE people. It's really classy that you attacked me by email and then blocked me so I can't respond in private. You made it personal when I made a public remark just to yanking your chain. See, I find it amusing you are even on this page. However, the fact that you went out of your way to email me personally makes it such a bigger deal than it was. Let it go.

  31. LordsMan

    There isn't a single person on my block list. I 'went out of my way' to message you because I don't like to argue on other people's videos. You chose to post your message here because you're one of 'those people' who want others to validate your ignorance. If it wasn't a big deal why did you go 'out of your way' to post yet another message here and not let it go. See, I find it amusing you you need to attempt yet more ad hominems because you can't refute a word of truth. Take care, kiddo.

  32. herbalpeace

    I wouldn't do this. Neither would i add it to my compost heap. The minerals will eventually flush out of the compostheap.
    Mix the rockdust with the worm castings/compost after you harvested it.

  33. Rusty Hill

    I have been freaking out on the plant nutrient situation in the grocery store for a while now. Finally I am in the beginning stages of back yard organic herb, veg & fruit-ology project. My main concern is getting more balanced chem free plant source minerals directly from my back yard. After hours of searching the Internet I finally tried youtube & bam! This is cool, Thanks…

  34. BigBossT

    They obtain this rock dust by destroying glaciers and mining the glacial gravel in receeding glaciers or volcanos as for the axomite

  35. Glen 0

    Put some rock dust into a bucket with water and stir it up and drain the water into a watering can to use on your tomatoes. You can refill the bucket many times to get the very smallest particles to where they will do the most good. Once the water no longer turns the colour of the rock dust when stirred throw the remaining dust into your garden or anywhere you like.

  36. Glen 0

    I can't comment on the worm subject but as far as adding rock dust to compost I would have to say that although it is true that the minerals will leach out of the rock dust far quicker in a healthy, Humus rich compost system, it is untrue that the minerals will leach away as the humus electrostatically binds onto any metallic mineral ions until they are needed biologically.

  37. Glen 0

    The main problem isn't that it is hard to provide a balanced mineral supplement to our soils as Sea based fertilizers (or tonics as some like to call them) are balanced and cheap and easy to obtain. The problem is holding these minerals in the soil in such a way that they are available to plant roots as required. This is why Humus levels should be focused on before mineral levels need to be addressed if needed.

  38. Driven to Win Video-Gameshow

    @Daisy Hawk, His mouth was saying 1 pound per sq foot, but his body language was saying 1 pound per cubic foot… I'm going with the cubic…

  39. Driven to Win Video-Gameshow

    @Boodyho, I don't think anyone can do a better job of destroying the Constitution than the federal government already has. Sorry, bro.

    But, for what it's worth, the Constitution protects his freedom of speech to say what he thinks is right for the world, even if the writing sucks.

    What it doesn't protect, is the opinion that someone needs to be murdered, as it can be considered a physical threat.

    So, if you think about it, he's acting far more constitutionally than your sorry ass.

  40. Alex Sommerkamp

    azomite has an extremely alkalizing effect. it can burn plants for sure. i've done it a couple times BE CAREFUL (use 75% less azomite than regular rock powders) use the pelletized version to avoid this effect. also rock phosphate is great and you should use a combination of different rock powders. rock phosphate is NOT chemically processed at all. I combine 1 part gaia green glaciel rock 2 part greensand 2 part calphos and 1/4 part azomite. in my experience this works great and won't burn.

  41. TheCattracker

    so i'm cutting fieldstone for my house and at the end of cutting there is a lot of powder in the trough. is this the rock dust we're talking about?

  42. Jinko modson

    How about the rock dust on construction sites. Ya know the ones come in bags. What is your idea about that? Can we use em?

  43. T. GRANT RICE

    H20 UR ROCKDUST BEFORE MIXING IT; THEN NOT NEED DUST MASK & LOOSE ANY! JUST PUNCTURE BOTTOM OF BAG & H20 SLOWLY INTO BUCKRT, ETC.  BEST 2 ALL, TR

  44. dreamsrreal22

    Hello John, my name is Tim and my good friend and I live on a seven acre property. He just put a second manufactured house on property. And I will be moving in the one of them in a couple weeks. And we want to start growing all our own food and maybe one day sell some of it. So for boring you, so my question is have you done or heard where you could get different kind of rock dusts in bulk? So we could get it by the truck load. Were about to put a ad up for a free dump for wood chips on Craigslist. Once we get everthing we need I want to start selling small bags to close friends and family and who ever else wants some. I just fugure since you live in california you might know. We live in wildomar, ca which is right by temecula. Thanks and hopefully you could get back to.

  45. Sarah Lee

    How long toes it take to be effective? What about potting media that will be replaced in a year or two. Will rock dust be effective within one year? or is it a more long term soil builder. is there a mineral nutrient that is fast acting and immediately available.

  46. ash4245

    andesite mineral complex is sold on amazon,com and there is a site that mines and makes basalt dust, and greensand can work well too and humic shale is a great dust elemite is a new improved version of azomite

  47. Renee N.

    I mixed Azomite into my pepper plant today! I'm excited to see the results. Will it help to prevent blossom-end rot or should I still apply some garden lime? I already used crushed egg shell at planting.

  48. artsychic2000

    I had a special jig made for my log splitter.  I position it vertically and crush my own lava rocks into a bin.  It works great and is super cheap!

  49. Jon S

    Rock dust is a lie, the results are coming out now. Sorry guys, dont waste your money. Tests show control plants out grow rock dust plants every test.

  50. Tom Neal

    i plan on growing pepper plants in pots if i use volcanic rock dust will that give the peppers the nutrients it needs and prevent blossom end rot ?

  51. TensegrityEnergy

    Extensive longer term studies in the Netherlands do show that rock dust does work, meaning higher quantity and quality of produce. Please note that the nutrients/elements in the rock dust become available through microbial, mechanical and chemical weathering. Most soils (initially) lack the soil biology to digest the rock dust. Please also note that certain rock dusts work faster because the minerals they are composed of weather more easily.

  52. mark9ze

    I once forget there was an open bag of this in the car and drove with the window cracked and then something start blowing around and then I rolled the window all the way down…..WOW was that confusing.

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